a port of the Processing Visualization Language

Processing.js Quick Start - Processing Developer Edition

Introduction

This quick start guide is written from the standpoint of a Processing developer. No HTML or JavaScript knowledge is assumed, and only basic Processing knowledge is necessary.

Index

  1. For the Impatient
  2. Why Processing.js?
    1. The Web: from Java to JavaScript
    2. Processing.js uses Modern Web Standards
  3. Writing a Processing.js Sketch
  4. Obtaining Processing.js
  5. Creating a Processing.js Web Page
  6. Running your Processing.js Web Page
  7. Things to Know as a Processing Developer using Processing.js
    1. Processing.js has no data directory
    2. Processing.js implements Processing, but not all of Java
    3. Processing.js only has two rendering modes
    4. Division which is expected to produce an integer might need explicit casting
    5. JavaScript, and as such Processing.js, has no "char" datatype
    6. Processing.js has to cheat to simulate Processing's synchronous I/O
    7. Processing.js requires more care with variable naming than Processing
    8. Processing.js needs your help when overriding overloaded superclass methods
    9. Calling color() with out-of-range values produces unpredictable colors
  8. It is possible to put Processing code directly in your web page
  9. Whatever you can do with the web, you can do with Processing.js

For the Impatient

If you're in a rush, here's what you need to know:

  1. Processing.js is written in JavaScript, and uses HTML5's <canvas> element. It converts your Processing code to JavaScript and runs it.
  2. To use it, download Processing.js here: downloads
  3. Make your Processing *.pde files as you normally would, for example hello-web.pde
  4. Create a web page that includes Processing.js as well as a <canvas> with info about where to get your sketch file (you can specify multiple *.pde files, separating them with spaces):
1 <script src="processing-1.0.0.min.js"></script>
2 <canvas data-processing-sources="hello-web.pde"></canvas>

Load your web page, and it will parse, translate, and run your sketch in the browser.

Why Processing.js?

The Web: from Java to JavaScript

Processing is built using Java. It was created at much the same time that the web was starting. At this time the choice of the Java language, and Java Runtime, as implementation targets for Processing made a lot of sense. In the mid-1990s, Java was poised to become the language of the web, with Applets and other Java technologies being used broadly on the client-side. Even Netscape, who created the language which would eventually become the lingua franca of the web with JavaScript, named their language so as to align themselves with the growing hype around Java.

In the end, Java became an important server side technology, receding from the client-side and browser. Today, most web browsers still support Java Applets, by means of a binary plugin. However, few web developers deploy Java-based web applications now, due to long load and startup times and difficulties relying on Java (or compatible Java versions) being installed. This trend is not isolated to Java, but is happening to all browser plugins (e.g., Flash), which are becoming less popular as issues of security, installation, deployment, etc. make them inconvenient or risky.

Another reason that plugins like Java and Flash have fallen out of favour is that recent advances in standard web technologies, specifically HTML5 and JavaScript, have made it possible to do things that previously depended on native (i.e., faster, compiled) code. Companies like Google, with GMail and Google Docs, or Scribd (see Scribd-in-HTML5) have shown that HTML, CSS, and JavaScript alone are enough to build fast, full featured web applications.

Processing.js uses Modern Web Standards

Processing.js is built using JavaScript and HTML5. Processing.js is really two things: a Processing-to-JavaScript translator; and an implementation of the Processing API (e.g., functions like line(), stroke(), etc.) written in JavaScript instead of Java. It might seem odd at first to imagine your Processing sketches running in a browser, usually without modification. But this is exactly what Processing.js enables.

Processing.js automatically converts your Processing code to JavaScript. This means that you don't have to learn JavaScript in order to run your code in a browser. You can, quite literally, write your code using the Processing IDE like you always have, and follow the steps below to get it running on the web. There's nothing new to learn, beyond getting a simple web page created.

Under the hood, Processing.js uses the new HTML5 canvas element to create your sketch's graphics. The canvas element is a new feature of the web, and is either implemented or will be implemented by all major web browsers. All Processing drawing features have been reimplemented in Processing.js to use canvas, so any browser that supports canvas will also support Processing.js.

Here's a sample of a Processing.js sketch running in the browser. If you can see it working, your browser supports everything you need already, and you can move on to instructions below.

Writing a Processing.js Sketch

There's nothing you should do differently to write sketches for Processing.js: you write your Processing.js code exactly like Processing. For most people, this will mean using the Processing IDE, which has the nice benefit of letting you write, run, and test your code all in once place. Remember, any valid Processing sketch should also be a valid Processing.js sketch.

If you want to experiment with web-based Processing.js code editors, you can also try these:

Let's make a simple sketch that is 200 by 200 in size, sets the background to gray, draws a small white circle, and prints a message to the debug console:

1 void setup() {
2   size(200, 200);
3   background(100);
4   stroke(255);
5   ellipse(50, 50, 25, 25);
6   println("hello web!");
7 }

I'll assume below that you saved this to a file called hello-web.pde

Obtaining Processing.js

Processing.js is a JavaScript library that is meant to be included in a web page. You don't have to compile it, tell your web server about it, etc. It simply has to be included in a web page, and the browser will do the rest.

You can download Processing.js at the download page. The library comes in a number of forms, for example:

  • processing-1.0.0.js (note that 1.0.0 is just the version, the number might be higher when you look at this)
  • processing-1.0.0.min.js

The version numbers may be different as you read this, but note the file extensions. Both end in .js, but one also has .min. The .min version is Processing.js in a minified form, which means it will be smaller to download (minified JavaScript uses tricks like removing whitespace and renaming long variable names to single letters). File sizes, and download times, matter on the web in a way they don't with normal Processing sketches.

Creating a Processing.js Web Page

It's easy to get overwhelmed with the amount there is to learn about modern web technologies. But there's a secret: you can ignore 95% of it as you start, and add more later as you have time and interest. Unlike compilers or programming languages, web browsers are designed to accept almost any input you throw at them, whether valid or not, whether complete or not. Here's your first Processing.js web page:

1 <script src="processing-1.0.0.min.js"></script>
2 <canvas data-processing-sources="hello-web.pde"></canvas>

That's it! No <html> or <body> tags, no title, no CSS, just the processing.js script, and a canvas. While there isn't much here, it's important to understand what is. First, the script tag has a src attribute, which is the file to load. This could be a full url or a relative path. In this case the browser is going to look for a file named processing-1.0.0.min.js in the same directory as your web page.

The second thing in this web page is a <canvas> tag. Notice that it too has an attribute, data-processing-sources. This is a list of filenames (or just one filename if you only have 1 file) separated by spaces (filenames and URLs on the web can't include spaces, so space is a safe choice for separating lists). In this case, the browser is going to look for a file named hello-web.pde located in the same directory as your page page.

How does the browser know how to load a Processing *.pde file? Processing.js takes care of this, and will download, parse (i.e., translate to JavaScript), then run it automatically when the page is loaded.

And that's it! Save this file to the same directory as hello-web.pde and processing-1.0.0.min.js and call it hello-web.html.

If you're the kind of person who doesn't like taking shortcuts, here's what a more complete web page might look like:

 1 <!DOCTYPE html>
 2 <html>
 3 <head>
 4     <title>Hello Web - Processing.js Test</title>
 5     <script src="processing-1.0.0.min.js"></script>
 6 </head>
 7 <body>
 8     <h1>Processing.js Test</h1>
 9     <p>This is my first Processing.js web-based sketch:</p>
10     <canvas data-processing-sources="hello-web.pde"></canvas>
11 </body>
12 </html>

Both ways work, and you shouldn't let yourself get burdened by HTML and other web syntax until you feel you want to do other things with your web pages.

Running your Processing.js Web Page

In case it isn't obvious, you run your hello-web.pde sketch by loading your hello-web.html web page in a compatible browser. Web browsers will provide you a way to load a local file, usually using the File menu and then Open File.... If you've saved the files above on a web server, you can use the remote URL instead.

Things to Know as a Processing Developer using Processing.js

While Processing.js is compatible with Processing, Java is not JavaScript, and canvas has some differences from Java's graphics classes. Here are some tricks and tips as you start working on more complex sketches in Processing.js.

Processing.js has no data directory

Processing uses the concept of a data directory, where images and other resources are located. Processing.js does not include this. As a result, you should always provide file pages (e.g., images) that are relative to your web page, which is the norm on the web.

Processing.js implements Processing, but not all of Java

Processing.js is compatible with Processing, but is not, and will never be, fully compatible with Java. If your sketch uses functions or classes not defined as part of Processing, they are unlikely to work with Processing.js. Similarly, libraries that are written for Processing, which are written in Java instead of Processing, will most likely not work.

Processing.js only has two rendering modes

Processing has many rendering modes to choose from, depending on the desired quality and speed for graphics (e.g., OPENGL, P3D, JAVA2D, etc.). Processing.js uses <canvas> which provides either a 2D drawing context or a 3D context based on WebGL (a version of OpenGL for the web). Therefore, whatever you choose, you will end-up with either the 2D or 3D context.

Division which is expected to produce an integer might need explicit casting

There are a class of bugs that arise when converting Processing code to Processing.js that involve integer vs. floating point division. What was straight-up integer division in Processing code, when converted to Processing.js, can sometimes become problematic, as numbers become doubles, and introduce a fractional part. The fix is to explicitly cast any division to an integer that exhibits this behaviour:

1 // before
2 int g = mouseX / i;
3 
4 // after
5 int g = (int)(mouseX / i);

See lighthouse bug

JavaScript, and as such Processing.js, has no "char" datatype

JavaScript only knows about numbers, and strings, unlike Java, which also knows about "char" data types. The char is a 16 bit unsigned integer value, that can also pretend to be a letter (from the ISO8859-1 codepage for the first 256 numbers, and basically magic after that). Unfortunately, as JavaScript has no equivalent, relying on char comparisons to be either numbers or letters is quite likely to cause problems. If you have Processing code where you're comparing chars, you will either have to perform int casting, or string casting, using the int() and str() functions, so that you know you're explicitly comparing datatypes that JavaScript can deal with.

Processing.js has to cheat to simulate Processing's synchronous I/O

Processing uses a synchronous I/O model, which means that functions like loadImage() take time to execute, and while they are running, nothing else happens: the program waits until loadImage() is done before moving on to the next statement. This means that you can count on the value returned by a function like loadImage() being usable in the next line of code.

Web browsers don't work like this. The web uses an asynchronous I/O model, which means that functions which load external resources can't make the program wait until they finish. In order to replicate Processing's load* functions, you have to use a special Processing.js Directive.

The Processing.js Directives are hints to the browser that are written in comments rather than in the Processing code itself. Here's a typical Processing sketch that loads an image synchronously and then draws it:

1 PImage img;
2 
3 void setup() {
4   img = loadImage("picture.jpg");
5   image(img, 0, 0);
6 }

This code will not work in the browser with Processing.js, because the call to image() will happen before the file picture.jpg has been downloaded. The fix is to ask Processing.js to download the image before the sketch starts, and cache it--a technique known as preloading. Here is the modified code:

1 /* @pjs preload="picture.jpg"; */
2 PImage img;
3 
4 void setup() {
5   img = loadImage("picture.jpg");
6   image(img, 0, 0);
7 }

Notice the extra comment line at the top of the code. The @pjs directive is for Processing.js, and not the developer. Think of it as an extra line of code that will be executed before the program begins.

If you have multiple images to load, use a list like so:

1 /* @pjs preload="picture.jpg,picture2.jpg,picture3.png"; */

Processing.js requires more care with variable naming than Processing

One of the powerful features of JavaScript is its dynamic, typeless nature. Where typed languages like Java, and therefore Processing, can reuse names without fear of ambiguity (e.g., method overloading), Processing.js cannot. Without getting into the inner-workings of JavaScript, the best advice for Processing developers is to not use function/class/etc. names from Processing as variable names. For example, a variable named line might seem reasonable, but it will cause issues with the similarly named line() function built-into Processing and Processing.js. This is equally true for built-in functions and functions you create. A good rule- of-thumb is: avoid having a variable foo in the same sketch as a function foo();.

Processing.js needs your help when overriding overloaded superclass methods

If your code uses subclasses that override one or more overloaded methods in the superclass, you will need "dummy" overrides for every method signature that you'd normally leave untouched:

 1 class X
 2 {
 3   void doSomething()
 4   {
 5     ...
 6   }
 7 
 8   void doSomething(float x, float y)
 9   {
10     ...
11   }
12 }
13 
14 class Y extends X
15 {
16   void doSomething()
17   {
18     // different code from compared to the super class
19   }
20 
21   // even though we don't override this method,
22   // its signature must be added to prevent Pjs
23   // from getting the method chain wrong:
24   void doSomething(float x, float y)
25   {
26     super.doSomething(x,y);
27   }
28 }

Even though in Processing you will not need to implement the fallthrough method for doSomethign with a (float,float) signature, doing so is almost always necessary to make sure Processing.js doesn't get confused about which class's method to call.

Calling color() with out-of-range values produces unpredictable colors

Also in the class of integer vs. floating point issues, color(number) and color(number, number) may not behave quite as expected. In native Processing, color(int) and color(float) behave differently in that the first is used for full color integers. Calling color(#FF0000) and color(16711680) are the same call, so they produce a red color. However, when using float values the color()/1 function treats the input as gray values, between 0 and the max indicated value (255, by default). Any value lower than 0 or higher than max is simply capped. Because of the integer vs. floating point issues with JavaScript, Processing.js does not perform any capping, and so even though the following code will show a black and a white line in Processing, it will show a yellow line, and an "invisible" line in Processing.js instead.

 1 void setup()
 2 {
 3   size(100,100);
 4   noLoop();
 5 }
 6 
 7 void draw()
 8 {
 9   background(127);
10   stroke(-200.0);
11   line(0,25,width,25);
12   stroke(600.0);
13   line(0,75,width,75);
14 }

We recommend you always sanitize your inputs for color if you need colors to be "in range", and only use hex colors, using color(#RRGGBB), or rgb/rgba colors, using color(r,g,b) and color(r,g,b,a)

It is possible to put Processing code directly in your web page

Using the data-processing-sources attribute on the canvas, and having Processing.js load an external file is the preferred and recommended way to include scripts in a web page. However, it is also possible to write in-line Processing code.

A few changes are necessary to make the example above work with inline Processing code:

 1 <script src="processing-1.3.6.min.js"></script>
 2 <script type="text/processing" data-processing-target="processing-canvas">
 3 void setup() {
 4   size(200, 200);
 5   background(100);
 6   stroke(255);
 7   ellipse(50, 50, 25, 25);
 8   println('hello web!');
 9 }
10 </script>
11 <canvas id="processing-canvas"> </canvas>

This code is more complex because it has to figure out which canvas goes with which script (i.e., you can have multiple Processing sketches living in the same page, and therefore, multiple canvases). Also note that the scripts include a type attribute, which distinguishes between JavaScript and Processing code (the browser will ignore Processing scripts). Finally, note the use of the id and target attributes to connect the Processing script with the associated canvas.

Whatever you can do with the web, you can do with Processing.js

Now that your sketch is working, and you have a basic web page, you'll probably start getting ideas about how to make this look more beautiful, how to better integrate your sketch with the surrounding web page or site, and how to mix data from various web services and APIs. Is it possible to mix images on Flickr and a Processing.js sketch? Yes. Is it possible to link Twitter to Processing.js? Yes. Anything the web can do, your Processing.js sketch can do.

This is an important idea, and is worth restating: Processing.js turned your once Java-based code into JavaScript, and your graphics into <canvas>. As a result, anything you read on the web about dynamic web programming, AJAX, other JavaScript libraries or APIs, all of it applies to your sketch now. You aren't running code in a box, cut-off from the rest of the web. Your code is a first-class member of the web, even though you didn't write it that way.

If you're feeling adventurous and want to go learn more about how to do other thing with HTML, JavaScript, CSS, etc. remember that everything they say applies to you and your sketches.

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